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Life as Commerce

Increasing the Gender Gap: the Impacts of the Bioeconomy and Markets in Environmental Services on Women
May 2013


Biodiversity and Livelihoods under Attack from Industrial Bio-economy Strategy
September 2012 


Bio-economy versus Biodiversity
April 2012
The ‘bioeconomy’ promotes speculative markets for ecosystem-based products and services, which are increasingly promoted as a ‘green’ alternative to the fossil fuel economy. Trading in ‘ecosystem services’ such as forest carbon offsets is accompanied by a massive expansion of wood-based bioenergy and other biomass-based products.  


Civil Society Views in Scaling up Biodiversity Finance, Resource Mobilization, and Innovative Financial Mechanisms
April 2012

Carbon trading in forests, soils, farmlands and grasslands
A Guide for journalists to proposals on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry and carbon trading for COP 16
December 2010
Life as Commerce toolkit
Toolkit to help communities who are being asked to accept or engage in a market-based conservation project.
The impact of market-based conservation on Indigenous Peoples, local communities and women; summary report with the following five case studies.

Case study on Certification in South Africa
By: The Timberwatch Coalition, 2008


Biodiversity Offsets in Paraguay
By: Alter Vida, 2008 


Case study on Ecotourism in India


Case study on bioprospecting in Costa Rica (only in Spanish)


Case study on Carbon sinks in Colombia (only in Spanish)
By: CENSAT Aqua Viva, 2008

International Financial Architecture and the Commodification of Life
By: Juana Camacho Otero, for Censat Agua Viva Foe-Colombia, June 2007

Life as Commerce Free Trade and the Environment
A dangerous Liaison: the environment and free trade
By GFC and Comunidades Ecologistas La Ceiba Amigos de la Tierra Costa Rica, 2008

Life as Commerce
International Financial Institutions, payments for environmental services and carbon finance
, 2008

Life as Commerce : The Impact of Market-Based Conservation Mechanisms on Woman, 2008

The impacts of market-based biodiversity conservation on Indigenous Peoples, local communities and women
This paper mainly focusses on carbon trade and biodiversity offsets.
Presented at the fifth Trondheim Conference on Biodiversity, 1 November 2007
You Cannot Save It If You Cannot Sell It? How Environmental Services Markets Impoverish People
Global Forest Coalition – August 2006
Nature for sale – Friends of the Earth International and Global Forest Coalition
The new markets 1: selling our carbon . November 2005
The new markets 2: selling our genes and knowledge January 2006
Ecotourism as a market-based conservation scheme in India (in Hindi )
How ecotourism development capitalizes on areas that are conserved at the cost of communities in India
Empty land
The social and environmental impact of the Holterberg plantations in the Netherlands